Ocean Of Birds


Penguins are highly adapted to water hunting and are mostly found in South Atlantic. Most of the time, they find it more fun and decisive to go underwater to hunt for food. Penguins are flightless creatures and as such their compact streamlined bodies have a keel for a breastbone and excessive, massive paddle-muscles. Their legs are all set back in the body, giving them their rolling gait.


They are regarded as being cute, friendly and happy birds due to their social characters, both at sea and ashore, breeding in colonies which can involve millions of pairs. They are almost restricted to the Southern Hemisphere (the invisible barrier of arm topical water denies them access to the northern fishing waters). Those few which breed in tropical or temperatures habitats do so underground to avoid sun.

Rockhopper Penguins

These penguins as records may have it so far are of length 25in (63cm). More or less focus shows and distinguish them from other crested penguins by smaller size, red eyes and drooping crest as this ability puts confusion to the similarity of this penguins to the Marconi penguins.Circumpolar in mainly temperate sub-Antarctic: Macquarie, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Kerguelen, Tristan da Cunha, Falklands, Tierra del Fuego, etc.

Rock hopper penguins. buzzscholars.com.

Mostly, aggressive penguins seem to attack intruders with gusto, even jumping up to a sleeve and hold on furiously. Rookeries formed on rocky coastline. Two bluish-white eggs laid in nest of pebbles or grass (according to terrain). Nests are often in caves or crevices, an open terrace and as such breeding schedules varies according to location.

Rockhopper penguin

Some predator can be as- on land- skuas and gulls and at sea- Leopard seals. Much exploited places by man are found to be for eggs and oil in the past.

King Penguin

Having the length of about 3ft (90cm), weight 30 to 40 lb, it is many times similar to the emperor penguins but differs in size and brighter coloration. Breeds in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands (being replaced on polar coasts by the Emperor), on Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, Macquarie, South Georgia, South Sandwich and Staten Islands. Wanders north to Tierra del Fuego and the Falklands.


The king penguins

Rookeries are always on low, bare ground, where the birds incubate the single egg in a fashion similar to that of the emperor. Incubation period is about fifty-four days, both parents sharing. Kings are more or less sedentary; their shore territory is never completely choked with ice, and their food, squid and sprats, is close at hand in the inshore kelp-beds.

At sea, the main predator is the Leopard Seal On shore, man has wrought enormous damage over the years, many hundreds of thousands of birds having been taken for their plumage and their blubber, with the result that the range of the species is much reduced, although its numbers are now increasing.

Adélie Penguin

Length about 30in (75cm). The most familiar of all penguins, the smart little man in evening dress. Weight about 9—141b (4—6kg) dropping to 6—101b (3—5kg) after the breeding season.Antarctic and circumpolar. Most abundant and widely distributed of all Antarctic penguins. Vagrant to South Georgia, Heard Island and Macquarie Island. Does not breed north of the South Sandwich and Bouvet Islands.

Adelie Penguins

Adelie’s return to the rookery during October, when the sea is still frozen and they may have to cross as much as 60 miles (100km) of ice. They nest at the foot of gentle ice-cliff slopes. Experienced breeders return to the same nest site and construct a nest pile of small stones (no other material is available) on open ground. Two eggs (sometimes only one but never three), incubated at first by male while female goes off to feed at sea (mainly on shrimps), returning to relieve her mate two weeks later. Subsequently they take turns in departing for feeding expeditions. Incubation period is about thirty-six days.

Both parents feed the young, which after four weeks congregate in crochets of as many as a hundred or more chicks. Returning parents recognize and feed their own chicks in the group. Juveniles mount, then go to sea in February. Walking speed about 3 miles (5km) an hour, but Adelie’s can run or toboggan much faster, outdistancing a sprinting man.Predators at the rookery are sheathbills and Antarctic Skuas, but the weather is a more important enemy, many birds being buried at their nests by snow blizzards. At sea the main predator is the Leopard Seal.


Emperor Penguin

Length 4ft (120cm). Long, rather slender and decurved bill, patches of orange-yellow at sides of neck. Weighs from 50 to 1001b 23 to 45kg). One of the world’s largest and heaviest seabirds. Although substantially heavier than the King Penguin, it has relatively smaller wings, feet and bill, factors favouring heat retention.

Emperor Penguins
Beautiful creature such as these emperor penguins.

Breeds only on the continent of Antarctica, assembling on the sea-ice below ice cliffs. The most truly Antarctic of all birds. No nest. After the egg is laid, soon after the sea ice forms in autumn, the male takes charge of it, carrying it on top of the feet, warmed by a fold of skin on his belly. While the male fasts, the female travels, perhaps many miles, across the sea-ice in order to reach open water and feed. Towards the end of the sixty-day incubation period, she returns to relieve the male and feed the chick. The males then disperse after the long fast. The young are reared during the winter months achieving independence during the short summer season when food is abundant.

In October and November, at the beginning of the Antarctic summer, they begin an extraordinary migration, congregating in groups at the edge of the sea-ice, waiting for the ice to break and provide icefloe rafts on which they drift northward.

The survival of the juvenile depends on their ice-floe lasting long enough to allow them to complete their moult before they have to enter the water.Emperors normally walk bolt upright, but if alarmed they drop down and ‘toboggan’, using wings and legs to propel themselves. Main predators are Sea Leopards and Orcas.









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